Design and execution of earthworks

Technical guide - Design and execution of earthworks

Section 1: Design and execution of work

Collection
Références

The purpose of the guide to “Design and execution of earthworks”is to assist and advise the Construction Manager in the course of theproject up to execution of earthworks. It consists of 3 independent fascicules:

fascicule 1: studies and execution of work;

fascicule 2: organization of checks;

fascicule 3: test methods.

This fascicule 1 “Studies and execution of work” is composed ofsix chapters.

Description

The purpose of the guide to “Design and execution of earthworks”is to assist and advise the Construction Manager in the course of theproject up to execution of earthworks. It consists of 3 independent fascicules:

fascicule 1: studies and execution of work;

fascicule 2: organization of checks;

fascicule 3: test methods.

This fascicule 1 “Studies and execution of work” is composed ofsix chapters. The first describes the recommended longitudinal sectiontechniques. The second consists of technical dossiers on earthworkstechnology. The third describes earthwork techniques which are notcurrently explained by technical guides. The fourth providesspecific examples. The fifth examines the problem of variants. Thesixth provides a summary of pathologies observed.

Sommaire

Contents

Sétra supports the public owner ................................................................................... 2

Sétra, promoting state-of-the-art know-how ................................................................ 2

Sétra, working in partnership....................................................................................... 2

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 6

Contents..................................................................................................................... 7

Chapter A – Studies of earthworks and the environment .................................. 12

A.1 - General ........................................................................................................ 12

A.2 – General principles of alignment studies ..................................................... 12

A.2.1 – Preliminary studies ........................................................................................ 12

A.2.2 – Overview / background summary [APS] ....................................................... 13

A.2.3 – Project studies................................................................................................ 13

A.3 – Consideration of the environment in earthworks studies ........................... 14

(see table)........................................................................................................... 14

A.3.1 – A solution in terms of earthworks .................................................................. 14

A.3.2 – A choice of solutions ...................................................................................... 14

A.3.3 – Areas for reflection and studies ..................................................................... 14

A.4 – Earthworks at all stages of studies.............................................................. 29

A.4.1.1 –Minor cuts (≤ 3 m) ....................................................................................... 29

A.4.1.2 –Minor embankments & fills (≤ 3 m) ............................................................. 38

A.4.3 – Large embankments/fills (> 3 m) ................................................................... 47

A.4.4 – Large tall embankments/fills .......................................................................... 47

A.5 - Measurements.............................................................................................. 48

A.5.1 - Definition ........................................................................................................ 48

A.5.2 – Basic factors used for calculation.................................................................. 48

A.5.3 – Basic formula for measurement calculations................................................. 48

A.5.4 – Approximate methods..................................................................................... 49

A.5.5 – Computer methods ......................................................................................... 51

A.5.6 – Calculation method used by software ............................................................ 51

A.5.7 – Example of calculation of measurements....................................................... 54

A.5.8 – Assistance software developed by SCETAUROUTE...................................... 57

B – Earthworks technology ................................................................................... 63

B.1 – Clearance of land requirements .................................................................. 63

B.1.1 – Area concerned .............................................................................................. 63

B.1.2 – Technical referential ...................................................................................... 63

B.1.3 – Issues involved ............................................................................................... 63

B.1.4 – Influential parameters.................................................................................... 63

B.1.5 – Execution phasing .......................................................................................... 64

B.1.6 – Monitoring to be carried out.......................................................................... 64

B.2 – Site roads..................................................................................................... 65

B.2.1 – Area concerned .............................................................................................. 65

B.2.2 – Technical referential ...................................................................................... 65

B.2.3 – Issues involved ............................................................................................... 65

B.2.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................... 65

B.2.5 – Execution phasing .......................................................................................... 65

B.2.6 – Monitoring to be carried out.......................................................................... 65

B.3 – Weather conditions and earthworks............................................................ 67

B.3.1 – Area concerned .............................................................................................. 67

B.3.2 – Technical reference documents...................................................................... 67

B.3.3 - Issues involved ................................................................................................ 67

B.3.4 – Influential parameters.................................................................................... 67

B.3.5 – Execution phasing .......................................................................................... 68

B.3.6 - Monitoring to be carried out .......................................................................... 68

B.4 - Topsoil ......................................................................................................... 69

B.4.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................... 69

B.4.2 – Technical referential ...................................................................................... 69

B.4.3 - Issues involved ................................................................................................ 69

B.4.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................... 69

B.4.5 - Execution phasing........................................................................................... 70

B.4.6 - Monitoring to be carried out .......................................................................... 71

B.5 - Cuts.............................................................................................................. 72

B.5.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................... 72

B.5.2 - Technical reference documents ...................................................................... 72

B.5.3 - Issues involved ................................................................................................ 72

B.5.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................... 72

B.5.5 - Execution phasing for cuts.............................................................................. 73

B.5.6 - Monitoring to be carried out .......................................................................... 74

B.6 - Embankments & Fills .................................................................................. 75

B.6.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................... 75

B.6.2 - Technical referential....................................................................................... 75

B.6.3 - Issues involved ................................................................................................ 75

B.6.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................... 75

B.6.5 - Execution phasing for the embankment .......................................................... 76

B.7 – External fillers or borrowings ..................................................................... 78

B.7.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................... 78

B.7.2 - Technical referential....................................................................................... 78

B.7.3 - Issues involved ................................................................................................ 78

B.7.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................... 78

B.7.5 - Execution phasing for borrowing ................................................................... 79

B.7.6 - Monitoring to be carried out .......................................................................... 79

B.8 – Final deposits and earth mound barriers ..................................................... 80

B.8.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................... 80

B.8.2 - Technical referential....................................................................................... 80

B.8.3 - Issues involved ................................................................................................ 80

B.8.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................... 80

B.8.5 - Execution phasing of a deposit and an earth mound barrier ......................... 81

B.9 – Embankments & fills on compressible soil ................................................ 82

B.9.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................... 82

B.9.2 - Technical referential....................................................................................... 82

B.9.3 - Issues involved ................................................................................................ 82

B.9.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................... 82

B.9.5 - Solutions advocated ........................................................................................ 82

B.9.6 - Execution phasing........................................................................................... 84

B.9.7 - Monitoring to be carried out .......................................................................... 85

B.10 – Blasting earthworks .................................................................................. 86

B.10.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 86

B.10.2 - Technical referential..................................................................................... 86

B.10.3 - Issues involved .............................................................................................. 86

B.10.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................. 86

B.10.5 - Execution phasing......................................................................................... 87

B.10.6 - Monitoring to be carried out ........................................................................ 88

B.11 – Waste and by-products.............................................................................. 89

B.11.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 89

B.11.2 - Technical referential..................................................................................... 89

B.11.3 - Issues involved .............................................................................................. 90

B.11.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................. 90

B.11.5 - Execution phasing......................................................................................... 91

B.11.6 - Monitoring to be carried out ........................................................................ 93

B.12 – Sewerage and drainage ............................................................................. 94

B.12.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 94

B.12.2 - Technical referential..................................................................................... 94

B.12.3 - Issues involved .............................................................................................. 94

B.12.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................. 95

B.12.5 - Execution phasing......................................................................................... 96

B.12.6 - Monitoring to be carried out ........................................................................ 96

B.13 - Capping layer............................................................................................. 97

B.13.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 97

B.13.2 - Technical referential..................................................................................... 97

B.13.3 - Issues involved .............................................................................................. 97

B.13.4 - Influential parameters .................................................................................. 97

B.13.5 - Execution phasing for a capping layer ......................................................... 98

C – Special structures and particular points ....................................................... 99

C.1 – Embankments & fills next to structures...................................................... 99

C.1.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................... 99

C.1.2 – Reference documents ..................................................................................... 99

C.1.3 - Issues involved................................................................................................ 99

C.1.4 - Solutions normally recommended .................................................................. 99

C.1.5 - Implementation ............................................................................................. 100

C.1.6 – Special systems ............................................................................................ 100

C.2.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 101

C.2.2 – Reference documents ................................................................................... 101

C.2.3 - Issues involved.............................................................................................. 101

C.2.4 – Recommended solution ................................................................................ 101

C.2.5 – Development of a cut/embankment boundary in the project's cross section.......101

C.3 – Compaction of embankment edges........................................................... 103

C.3.1 – Area of application ...................................................................................... 103

C.3.2 - Reference documents .................................................................................... 103

C.3.3 - Issues involved.............................................................................................. 103

C.3.4 – Recommended solution – advantages/disadvantages .................................. 103

C.3.5 - Mode of execution ........................................................................................ 104

C.3.6 – Checks and implementation ......................................................................... 104

C.3.7 - Remarks ........................................................................................................ 104

C.4 – Purging and substitution ........................................................................... 105

C.4.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 105

C.4.2 - Reference documents .................................................................................... 105

C.4.3 - Definition of purging .................................................................................... 105

C.4.4 - Definition of a substitution ........................................................................... 105

C.4.5 - Issues involved.............................................................................................. 105

C.4.6 - Recommended solution................................................................................. 107

C.4.7 - Remarks ........................................................................................................ 108

C.5 – Extra-large embankments/fills .................................................................. 109

C.5.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 109

C.5.2 - Reference documents .................................................................................... 109

C.5.3 - Issues involved.............................................................................................. 109

C.5.4 – Studies to be arranged ................................................................................. 109

C.5.5 – Contents of a design study ........................................................................... 110

C.5.6 – Guidelines for construction stipulations and choice of embankment materials......111

C.5.7 – Monitoring and instrumentation program ................................................... 115

C.6 – Heterogeneous embankments/fills ............................................................ 117

C.6.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 117

C.6.2 - Reference documents .................................................................................... 117

C.6.3 - Issues involved.............................................................................................. 117

C.6.4 – Recommended solutions............................................................................... 119

C.6.5 - Observations................................................................................................. 120

C.7 – Embankments & fills with extra-dry materials......................................... 122

C.7.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 122

C.7.2 - Reference documents .................................................................................... 122

C.7.3 - Issues involved.............................................................................................. 122

C.7.4 – The materials concerned.............................................................................. 122

C.7.5 - Solution envisaged........................................................................................ 122

C.8.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 125

C.8.2 - Reference documents .................................................................................... 125

C.8.3 - Issues involved.............................................................................................. 125

C.8.4 – Recommended solutions............................................................................... 125

C.8.5 – Construction stipulations............................................................................. 126

C.8.6 - Observations................................................................................................. 126

C.9 – Cuts/embankments/fills on a waste dump or a polluted site..................... 127

C.9.1 - Area concerned............................................................................................. 127

C.9.2 - Reference documents .................................................................................... 127

C.9.3 - Issues involved.............................................................................................. 127

C.9.4 – Preliminary tests and investigation work .................................................... 127

C.9.5 – Recommended solutions - implementation .................................................. 128

C.10 – Cuts in aquiferous zones ......................................................................... 131

C.10.1 – Structure concerned................................................................................... 131

C.10.2 - Reference documents .................................................................................. 131

C.10.3 - Issues involved............................................................................................ 131

C.10.4 – Studies to be carried out ............................................................................ 132

C.10.5 – Recommended solutions............................................................................. 134

C.10.6 - Observations............................................................................................... 137

C.11 – Embankments & fills in aquiferous zones .............................................. 137

C.11.1 – Structures concerned ................................................................................. 137

C.11.2 - Reference documents .................................................................................. 137

C.11.3 - Issues involved............................................................................................ 138

C.11.4 - Studies ........................................................................................................ 138

C.11.5 – Recommended solutions............................................................................. 138

C.12 – Underground cavities .............................................................................. 140

C.12.1 - Area concerned........................................................................................... 140

C.12.2 - Reference documents .................................................................................. 140

C.12.3 - Issues involved............................................................................................ 140

C.12.4 – Studies to be carried out ............................................................................ 140

C.12.5 - Recommended solutions ............................................................................. 141

D – Constructional measures (case studies) ....................................................... 143

Case study No. 1................................................................................................. 144

Case study No. 2................................................................................................. 145

Case study No. 3................................................................................................. 146

Case study No. 4................................................................................................. 148

Case study No. 5................................................................................................. 150

E – Preparation of work ...................................................................................... 153

E.1 – Design and analysis of variants................................................................. 153

E.1.1 – General stipulations and stipulations in regulations ................................... 153

E.1.2 - Application to earthwork sites ...................................................................... 153

E.1.3 – Plausible variants ........................................................................................ 154

E.1.4 – Technical analysis of the variants................................................................ 154

E.2 – Legal, technical and economic risks in relation to earthworks ................. 156

E.2.1 – Risk assessment ............................................................................................ 156

E.2.2 - Legal risks in relation to earthworks............................................................ 156

E.2.3 – Technical risks in relation to earthworks .................................................... 157

E.2.4 – Economic risks in relation to earthworks .................................................... 158

E.3 – Phases prior to construction ...................................................................... 160

E.3.1 – Concerning the Tender Documents [DCE] during the period of preparation......160

E.3.2 – Inventory of the tools required for proper site construction........................ 163

E.3.3 – Earth movement and choice of materials..................................................... 164

E.4 – Work phase ............................................................................................... 168

E.4.1 – Procedures to be observed during the work phase ...................................... 168

E.4.2 – Ordering of tasks.......................................................................................... 176F - Pathologies....................................................................................................... 183

F.1 – Pathology of earthworks structures ........................................................... 183

F.1.1 - Preamble....................................................................................................... 183

F.1.2 – Pathology of cuts.......................................................................................... 183

F.1.3 – Pathology of embankments and fills ............................................................ 184

Annexes ................................................................................................................. 186

Acronyms used ................................................................................................... 186

Bibliography ....................................................................................................... 189

Guides, notes and recommendations........................................................................ 189

Regulations ......................................................................................................... 190

Other documents................................................................................................. 191

Détails
Titre
Technical guide - Design and execution of earthworks
Réf. Cerema
702-1A
Catégorie de produit
Ouvrage
Nombre de pages
192 pages
Référence
SKU1915124282
Numéro ISRN
EQ-SETRA--07-ED44--FR+ENG
Editeur
Cerema (ex-Setra)
Auteur collectif
Cerema
Date de parution
Nombre de pages
192 pages
Langue de la publication
Anglais
Type d'auteur
Oeuvre collective

Sélectionner les chapitres

Technical guide - Design and execution of earthworks
Réf. Cerema
702-1A
0,00 €
Paiement 100% sécurisé
Livraison dans le monde entier