Which climate changes are projected by 2100 in France? What are the impacts expected on transport infrastructures and networks? Which technical documents and standards have to be updated to anticipate climate change? What are the climate precisions therefore necessary?
To address these issues, the Cerema published in 2015 a report focused on the adaptation of technical documents and standards used for the design, maintenance and operation of transport infrastructures to climate change. This report has been written by experts of different types of infrastructures from the Cerema or from various partners, thus it takes into account: road infrastructures including earthworks and road constructions; maritime, river, port, airport and rail infrastructures, and cable transport systems.
Numerous international and national reports describe projections of climate change: a increase of the mean temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns and wind systems, extreme events, in increase of the sea level, etc. (IPCC, 2007, 2013; Peings, 2011, 2012; Planton, 2012).
After reviewing the main climate changes expected before 2100, this report presents the current impacts of the climate and the potential impacts of the expected climate changes on: highway infrastructures (including urban transport structures), earthworks, constructions, rail infrastructures, river, maritime and port infrastructures, airport infrastructures and, finally, transport systems and mechanical drag lifts.
In each of these domains of infrastructures, technical documents and standards for the design, maintenance and operation, in which climate variables intervene, have been listed and classified in three categories of priority of adaptation. Finally, a list of the climate projections required to adapt these reference documents has been compiled.
This subsequent adaptation should allow future changes in the climate to be taken into consideration more effectively.